Friday, 29 June 2007

5-HTP for depression



Insufficient activity of the key neurotransmitters serotonin and
norepinephrine is now recognised as a major part of the aetiology of
depression; nearly all drugs used to treat depression enhance these
neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers sent
between neuronal cells, they have a profound effect on how we feel.

Serotonin
Serotonin is known as the “feel good” neurotransmitter; it is
synthesised from the amino acid tryptophan, which is converted to
serotonin’s immediate precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). Serotonin
regulates mood and modulates pain perception, it is used to synthesise
melatonin which regulates the sleep/wake cycle; thus serotonin is
associated with a sense of well-being. The amount of the biochemical
precursors in the brain influences the rate of serotonin synthesis.

5-HTP
During the 1970s and 1980s a lot of research was conducted into the
efficacy of using tryptophan and 5-HTP as a treatment for depression.
Tryptophan is found in especially high levels in poultry, tuna, eggs,
cheese, milk and tofu. Serotonin production can be increased two-fold by
consuming tryptophan; however the transport of tryptophan to the central
nervous system and it’s final conversion to serotonin can be compromised
by factors such as vitamin B-6 deficiency and cortisol excess.

Supplementing with 5-HTP bypasses the conversion of tryptophan to 5-HTP;
in addition 5-HTP crosses the blood-brain barrier and does not need to
be transported.

The studies
One of the pilot studies, a placebo- controlled trail using 200mg of
5-HTP, found that depressive symptoms reduced in 60% of patients in the
active treatment group while no change was observed in the placebo
group. Further studies by the same research group produced similar
results, for example, one study with four groups of ten patients found
that 200mg of 5-HTP was not only more effective than placebo but almost
as effective as clomipramine (a tricyclic antidepressant, this group of
medications is associated with a range of devastating side effects).

A 1991 Swiss study divided 36 patients into two groups, one receiving
5-HTP (300mg daily), the other receiving fluvoxamine (an SSRI
anti-depressant); after six weeks both groups had an equal number of
patients showing a 50% improvement. Several other studies have shown
similar results suggesting the efficacy of 5-HTP.

A recent systematic review concluded “available evidence does suggest
these substances are better than placebo at alleviating depression.
Further studies are needed.”
The future
Conventional anti-depressant medication is widely acknowledged to be
associated with a number of severe potential side effects. Raising
physiological levels of neurotransmitters by natural means looks
promising to offer safe symptomatic relief to depressed patients.

It is important to recognise that depression is a multi-factorial
condition and all aspects, including nutritional deficiencies and
psycho-social factors, must be addressed as part of a treatment
strategy.


Notes
Tryptophan is not obtainable for general sale in the UK following deaths
among it’s users in 1989 from eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome. The deaths
were the result of one particular batch only and tryptophan is now
freely available in many countries.

Wednesday, 27 June 2007

Is Disc Surgery Necessary?

The answer to the above question may surprise you, especially if you or someone you know faces the prospect of disc surgery. According to a paper in one of world’s leading spinal journals, in almost all cases it probably doesn’t need to be done.

The paper in Spine states that about 1% of the population will experience disc herniation each year and over 90% of them will improve without surgery using “conservative” care, that is without surgery. About 2-4% of patients with disc herniations have indications for surgery. Also an MRI will reveal a disc herniation in approximately 20% of asymptomatic patients aged less than 60 years. Meaning that about 20% of people have herniations and have no symptoms, no pain and no knowledge of disc problems. Therefore in many people, the existence of an MRI showing disc herniation doesn’t automatically mean the herniation is causing their spinal pain. The herniation may be concurrent or coincident with the pain.
But the article tells us something fascinating: “Over time, most patients with disc herniations recover with or without surgery, so that outcomes after five years are similar when surgical and non-surgical approaches are compared.… In the end, the decision to operate on a patient with a lumbar disc herniation usually depends on patient preference rather than necessity.”
Be aware that this study does not specifically include chiropractic care, which has saved many people from spinal disc surgery. Many of the thousands of disc operations done each year would be unnecessary if a “wait and see” approach were used. (But we’re sure even more would be saved from the knife if a “wait and see and chiropractic” approach were used. (2)

Dowagers Hump, Hump Back, Hyperkyphosis

A study published in the journal of the American Geriatrics Society has shown that older men and women with hyperkyphotic posture ("Dowager's Hump") have higher death rates. Postural imbalance affects your spinal nerve function and thereby your health.
I have acquired the technique and the equipment to correct Dowagers Hump with Koren’s Specific Technique.
My goal is to eliminate the hump, improve your posture and restore your health.


Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Vol. 52 Issue 10 Pp. 1662- October 2004,
Hyperkyphotic Posture Predicts Mortality in Older Community-Dwelling Men and Women: A Prospective Study.
Deborah M. Kado, MD, Arun S. Karlamangla, MD, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, MD and Gail A. Greendale, MD
Objectives: To determine the association between hyperkyphotic (Dowagers Hump, hump back) posture and rate of death and cause-specific death in older persons.

Participants: There were 1,353 participants from the Rancho Bernardo Study who had measurements of kyphotic posture made at an osteoporosis visit between 1988 and 1991.
Measures: Kyphotic posture was measured as the number of ¾ inch blocks that needed to be placed under the participant's head to achieve patient’s head position when lying supine on a radiology table. Participants were followed for an average of 4.2 years, with mortality and cause of death confirmed using review of death certificates.
Results: Hyperkyphotic posture, defined as requiring one or more blocks under the head to achieve a neutral head position while lying on their back, was more common in men than women (44% in men, 22% of women). In age and gender adjusted analyses, persons with hyperkyphotic posture had a 44% greater rate of mortality. The increased rate of death associated with hyperkyphotic posture remained significant. The hyperkyphotic posture was specifically associated with an increased rate of death due to heart disease.
Men were more likely to be hyperkyphotic than were women. Patient had difficulty in bending, walking and climbing, measured grip strength, and ability to rise from a chair. For example, the odds ratio of having to use the arms to stand up from a chair increased by 60% for individuals defined as hyperkyphotic by 1 block to 190% for individuals defined as hyperkyphotic by 2 blocks to 270% for individuals defined as hyperkyphotic by 3 blocks compared to those who were not hyperkyphotic.
Conclusion: Older men and women with hyperkyphotic posture have higher death rates.

Tuesday, 26 June 2007

Cancer Resarch Update from John Hopkins Hospital

1. No plastic containers in microwave.


2. No water bottles in freezer.

3. No plastic wrap in microwave.



Johns Hopkins has recently sent this out in its newsletters. This
information is being circulated at Walter Reed Army Medical Center as
well.

Dioxin chemicals causes cancer, especially breast cancer.

Dioxins are highly poisonous to the cells of our bodies. Don't freeze
your plastic bottles with water in them as this releases dioxins from
the plastic.

Recently, Dr. Edward Fujimoto, Wellness Program Manager at Castle
Hospital , was on a TV program to explain this health hazard. He talked
about dioxins and how bad they are for us.


He said that we should not be heating our food in the microwave using
plastic containers.


This especially applies to foods that contain fat.


He said that the combination of fat, high heat, and plastics releases
dioxin into the food and ultimately into the cells of the body.

Instead, he recommends using glass, such as Corning Ware, Pyrex or
ceramic containers for heating food. You get the same results, only
without the dioxin. So such things as TV dinners, instant ramen and
soups, etc., should be removed from the container and heated in
something else.
Paper isn't bad but you don't know what is in the paper. It's just safer
to use tempered glass, Corning Ware, etc.

He reminded us that a while ago some of the fast food restaurants moved
away from the foam containers to paper. The dioxin problem is one of the
reasons.
Also, he pointed out that plastic wrap, such as Saran, is just as
dangerous when placed over foods to be cooked in the microwave. As the
food is nuked, the high heat causes poisonous toxins to actually melt
out of the plastic wrap and drip into the food.

Cover food with a paper towel instead.



This is an article that should be sent to anyone important in your life!

Monday, 25 June 2007

study on usa death rates from medicine and surgery

Estimated 10-Year Death Rates from Medical Intervention


Adverse Drug Reaction 1.06 million

Medical error 0.98 million
Bedsores 1.15 million
Nosocomial Infection 0.88 million
Malnutrition 1.09 million
Outpatients 1.99 million
Unnecessary Procedures 371,360
Surgery-related 320,000
Total 7,841,360

Our estimated 10-year total of 7.8 million iatrogenic deaths is more than all the casualties from all the wars fought by the US throughout its entire history.

Our projected figures for unnecessary medical events occurring over a 10-year period also are dramatic.
Estimated 10-Year Unnecessary Medical Events

Total 164 million

These figures show that an estimated 164 million people—more than half of the total US population—receive unneeded medical treatment over the course of a decade.

Sunday, 24 June 2007

quackbuster busted

Barrett Loses Appeal, Leaves Town

Self proclaimed Quackbuster, Stephen Barrett, MD, recently handed crushing
defeats by chiropractor Tedd Koren and Ilena Rosenthal, has announced he is
leaving his home town and operating base in Allentown, Pennsylvania. (reports Dr Tedd Koren DC)

On June 11th, 2007, the Superior Court of Pennsylvania affirmed a lower court
dismissal of Barrett's defamation suite against Dr. Koren. Barrett's case was so
lacking in merit the judge blocked it from going to the jury. Barrett simply had
no case against Dr. Koren. This followed another stunning defeat last month
in California. There an appeals court ordered Barrett and crony Terry Polevoy, MD
to post bonds of more than $400,000.00 after they lost a defamation case against
Illena Rosenthal virtually identical to the Koren case.

Perhaps the fact that lawyers and judges in Allentown are catching on to his
intimidation schemes explains why Barrett is moving to Chapel Hill, North
Carolina. Barrett can run but he can't hide. Chapel Hill collection
attorneys are already being asked to locate his assets to pay his unmet legal
obligations. Assets of other Quackwatch, Inc., principals might also be
sought.

Who Is Steven Barrett, What Are Quackbusters?

Steven Barrett is an unlicensed Pennsylvania psychiatrist, who, though he failed
his psychiatric boards and has been criticized for his lack of expertise by
several courts, still claims to often advise the Federal Trade Commission (FTC),
the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the FBI, State Attorneys General, HMOs,
Consumer Reports, medical journals and state medical, chiropractic  and
dental boards.

The insurance industry cites Barrett's highly opinionated "Quackbuster" attacks
to deny paying claims for chiropractic and other natural healthcare.

Barrett and the "Quackbusters," a vigilante group of self proclaimed skeptics of
any medical or health modality that avoids drugs, surgery or radiation, attack
almost all non-conventional healthcare practices as quackery.  Ignoring all
scientific research to the contrary, they dismiss Gulf War Syndrome, Post
Traumatic Stress Disorder, Chemical Sensitivity, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and
dietary supplements as rubbish. Double Nobel Prize winner Linus Pauling is on
their "quack" hit list along with many well known and respected doctors and
scientists, including Deepak Chopra, Andrew Weil, and dozens of others.

Barrett claims to give over 500 interviews a year to newspapers, magazines, and
television shows, including CNN and the Today Show. He claims to have been
a peer reviewer for seven medical journals, including the Journal of the American
Medical Association, even though he had no license to practice medicine when he
did the reviewing.

The Quackbusters run over 70 websites. Millions of people go to them every
year. Look up chiropractic, acupuncture, homeopathy or even vitamin C, as well as
almost every other natural health topic, on the Internet and you (and the public)
will be led to Quackbuster sites advising you of natural health "dangers."
In all these forums Barrett and the Quackbusters relentlessly attack the consumer
right to informed choice. These activities continue the AMA's anti-quackery
committee's activities that were struck down by federal courts as an illegal
restraint of trade in a landmark lawsuit brought by Illinois chiropractor Chester
Wilk. They also help insurance companies deny consumer reimbursement
claims.
At the same time, Barrett flacks for products like aspartame (NutraSweet), which
is the subject of tens of thousands of consumer complaints. Question (asked
on Barrett's web site): "An email message is being circulated with many
statements to the effect that aspartame is dangerous. How worried should I
be?" Answer (from Barrett): "Not at all. The message is pure
rubbish."


What Did Dr. Koren Do to Provoke Barrett's Shakedown?


Dr. Tedd Koren is a well-known chiropractor, researcher, writer and
lecturer. Barrett sued Dr. Koren in 2003 for calling him a Quackpot,
saying he was in big trouble because of a racketeering law suit brought against
him and attacking his lack of a medical license in his internet newsletter.
The trial judge and three appeals judges agreed unanimously that these statements
were so far from defamation that no jury could be legally allowed to call them
defamation. Dr. Koren also said Barrett was "delicensed." One of the
three appeals courts judges thought a jury might be able to find this to be
defamation. However two appellate judges disagreed and jurors interviewed
after the trial said they too saw through Barrett and felt that he was a
litigious, ungrounded and biased denier of the truth.


In part jurors formed this view because Barrett testified with great
self-satisfaction in the Koren case that he had sued many doctors-close to
forty-in similar cases, demanding up to $100,000 if they wished to avoid a costly
lawsuit. Some paid-how many is yet to be discovered.  Drs. Koren and
Rosenthal and a few others did not. Barrett has failed to win a single
lawsuit in this shakedown scheme.

During heated and often dramatic courtroom proceedings, Mr. Negrete pointed out
many of the questionable statements Barrett includes on his websites attacking
chiropractic, as well as facts about Barrett's own credentials that shocked
even his supporters.
Mr. Turner says, It is very important that a very responsible judge in
Barrett hometown recognized that he was making false allegations and
dismissed the case. Barrett has cost untoward numbers of consumers pain, anguish
and probably serious harm by his misrepresentation of the facts about subjects
ranging from acupuncture to zinc."

Mr. Turner, who among other campaigns led the team that got acupuncture needles
approved as safe by FDA, worked with a Senate committee to abolish the
dysfunctional vaccine regulatory agency, worked with whistleblowers to stop the
Swine Flu inoculation campaign, kept aspartame off the market for ten years, and
played a key role in lobbying the Organic Food Production Act through Congress
(all areas on which the Foundation for Health Choice focuses), says, "Our
objective is to end Barrett's abuse of consumers by eliminating the false and
misleading information from his website and his entire network of websites and
replacing it with sound, useful information for consumers.

Says Dr. Koren, "This is just the beginning. Just as the FTC battle was not about
Tedd Koren alone but had ramifications for the entire chiropractic and natural
health professions so the Barrett v. Koren battle will have major ramifications
for all. We're going to give the Quackbusters a taste of their own medicine.
They'll learn how dangerous medicine can be."

chiropractic reduces high blood pressure

Researchers from the University of Chicago say that a minor one-time adjustment of a the Atlas, or C1 vertebra in the neck can lower blood pressure by the same amount as the combination of two blood pressure medicines at once. The pilot research program adjusted the vertebrae of 25 people with high blood pressure.

Amazingly they discovered that both their systolic and diastolic readings decreased significantly. Previous anecdotal reports have linked blood pressure and neck pain, according to a report in the Chicago Tribune, but no one investigated this further.

Dr. George Bakris, director of the hypertension center at the University of Chicago Medical Center said "Even back in the 1960s and '70s, neurosurgeons and some specialized chiropractors knew that things change when you realign C1. But there has not been the rigor of the scientific method applied to see what's going on. We wanted to find out if this effect lasts longer than a week or two."

The C1 vertebra is not like the other vertebrae because it is not anchored like other vertebrae. It is held in place solely by muscles and ligaments and can easily slip out of alignment. There may not be any pain associated with this condition and it often goes undetected and untreated.

The Tribune reports that there were chiropractic specialists aware of the phenomenon. Some specialists limited their practice to manual alignment of the C1. They make up the National Upper Cervical Chiropractic Association (NUCCA). Patients from Chicago NUCCA specialist, Marshall Dickholtz Sr., were sent for the study.

Half the patients received a tailor-made adjustment while the other half received a "sham intervention." Patients were assessed after the alignment and after eight weeks.

"We were shocked to find out that we got more than double what we expected in blood pressure reduction," Bakris said. Patients did not need to resume taking blood pressure medicine. The effect lasted for months.


George Bakris, MD

Wednesday, 13 June 2007

more about sunscreen dangers from Al Sears MD

Industry Fat Cats Peddling Poison Sunscreen for Big Profits…

Dermatologists and the sunscreen industry have banded together to scare you into wasting your money on useless – and poisonous – “sun protection” products. They call themselves the “Sun Safety Alliance.”

But far from protecting you, independent test results show many of these products actually increase your risk of cancer. And their little scheme is making millions.

The “facts” you hear about the sun and your risk of skin cancer comes directly from these corporate insiders. But don’t be fooled… They’re created, funded and directed by influential members of the cosmetic and sunscreen industries.

Their number one goal is not safeguarding your health… It’s making money.

Here are the real facts about sunscreen:

* Sunscreens effectively stop your skin from protecting itself with melanin.

* Sunscreens block nearly all of your production of cancer-protecting vitamin D.
* Many chemicals in sunscreen are proven carcinogens (cancer-causing agents).

* Estrogen mimics in sunscreens cause hormonal disruption and promote tumor growth.

chiropractic - best video

suffering from headaches, sciatica, migraines, back pain, etc.?
watch the best chiropractic video (the whole story in less than 10 minutes):

fitness tip - stretching

Stretching is an essential component of a successful exercise routine. Stretching will assist in increasing physical performance, decreasing risk of injury, increasing coordination and balance, reducing stress and enhancing enjoyment. To get the most benefit from a stretching routine:

* Always warm up before stretching
* Stretching should be slow and controlled without any bouncing
* Hold each stretch at a point of mild tension for 10-30 seconds. Repeat this 3 to 5 times.
* Do not excessively extend, flex, twist or lock any joints.

fitness tip - increasing your walking speed

If you're like most people, you focus on your legs when your walking.
After all, you need to move your legs to keep going, right?
It turns out it's not your arms or legs that guide you forward as you walk, but rather your hips. Their movement sets your walking rhythm and speed, so pay attention to them next time you go for a fitness walk. As your speed increases, your hips should naturally rotate forward as each leg extends.
To facilitate this rotation, keep your chest up and arms bent at 90-degree angles, moving them forward and back (but never across the body) as you walk, and gently turn alternating hips toward the center of your body with each stride.

Tuesday, 12 June 2007

pace yourself while exercising

Have You Heard Of Dr Al Sears' PACE Workout?

He contends long duration regular cardiovascular/pulmonary excercise just DOWNSIZES the heart.
Do you think you need long punishing workouts to improve your fitness? Think again. Dr. Sears has developed a PACE workout program that allows you to, literally, pace yourself and prevent or reverse heart disease in the process.

Unlike conventional interval training regimes, the PACE program focuses on the rest periods between the intense intervals. After you exert for several seconds or a minute you have a recovery period of 1-2 minutes or more in which you focus on getting your heart rate to within 20 beats of its resting rate. In this way you increase your lung capacity (and your longevity) and strengthen your heart.

Dr. Sears provides many different examples of PACE workouts, none of them lasting longer than 15-20 minutes, using the outdoors, pool and many different types of equipment. There's enough variety to appeal to anyone. You can use any style of exercise you want as long as you progressively increase the intensity and focus on lowering your heart rate during the recovery periods. You have the freedom to adapt the program to your own preferences and fitness level.

He cites several credible research studies when making his case that endurance training is actually harmful to you and PACE workouts are superior. Although technical at times, his arguments are accessible to anyone interested in losing fat, increasing their longevity, and having a strong heart and lungs well into old age. You won't regret reading this book and trying the PACE workout.


The book is called 'PACE: Rediscover Your Native Fitness' by Al Sears MD

testimonial:


"Al Sears got the best exercise programe in the world believe me his PACE programe is without a shadow of a doubt the best. i have subscribed to his site for many years now since 2004 i believe after the heart attack and always amazed at what he has to say. I'm convinced Long duration exercises have caused my "mild" heart attack in 2004 at 42 yrs old and have since then rehabed with his recommendations and best of all it only takes mere mins a day, 6 mins to no more than 20 mins tops 3 to 4 times a week"

http://www.alsearsmd.com/pace/

my site for acupressure, weight loss and exercise:
www.patlife.homestead.com

oil pullinghttp://www.blogger.com/img/gl.link.gif

Another wonderful and wacky cure - its called "oil pulling" - i've tried it, and while I cannot endorse the claims made, my longstanding bleeding gums problem cleared up in just a few days.

from http://www/oilpulling.com

Dr. F. Karach, M.D., presented a paper before the All-Ukrainian Association. The meeting was attended by oncologists and bacteriologists belonging to the Academy of Science of the USSR. Dr. Karach explained an unusual simple healing process using cold-pressed oils.
The results of this therapy invoked astonishment and doubt concerning the contents of his report. However, after further examining the workings of the oil therapy, one has but to then test it on oneself to prove its validity and effectiveness. It is most astonishing that such results can be achieved with this absolutely harmless biological healing method. This simple method makes it possible to effectively treat the most varied diseases, in some cases enabling one to avoid surgical intervention and the taking of medications that can have harmful side effects.The exciting factor of this healing method is its simplicity. It consists of swishing cold-pressed oil in the mouth( Sunflower or Seasme, Please note you don't need to go for organic oils only, A normal refined sunflower oil bought from any supermarket proven to be effective in many people). The healing process is accomplished by the human organism on its own. In this way it is possible to heal cells, tissue and all organs simultaneously; the body itself gets rid of toxic waste without disturbing the healthy microflora. Dr. Karach says human beings are living only half their life span. They could potentially live healthy to be 140 to 150 years old.

The method

In the morning before breakfast on an empty stomach you take one tablespoon in the mouth but do not swallow it. Move Oil Slowly in the mouth as rinsing or swishing and Dr Karach puts it as ' sip, suck and pull through the teeth' for fifteen to twenty minutes. This process makes oil thoroughly mixed with saliva. Swishing activates the enzymes and the enzymes draw toxins out of the blood. The oil must not be swallowed, for it has become toxic. As the process continues, the oil gets thinner and white. If the oil is still yellow, it has not been pulled long enough.It is then spit from the mouth , the oral cavity must be thoroughly rinsed and mouth must be washed thoroughly. Just use normal tap water and good old fingers to clean....

Dr. (med.) Karach said the oil pulling heals totally “head-aches, bronchitis, tooth pain, thrombosis, eczema, ulcers and diseases of stomach, intestines, heart, blood, kidney, liver, lungs and women’s diseases. It heals diseases of nerves, paralysis, and encephalitis. It prevents the growth of malignant tumors, cuts and heals them. Chronic sleeplessness is cured.”

see http://www.ultraherbal.com/product/overview/Eazol_Herbal_Pain_Relief/

Monday, 11 June 2007

traditional diets

from Dr Tedd Koren:
"For a long time I've been looking for excellent nutrition advice, that if found,
we wouldnt have to buy vitamins.
It was pretty much under my nose.
I'd like you to look at, for your consideration this paper....
You wouldnt believe the garbage people eat (OK, I'm sure you would).
Everything from diet drinks, sodas, artificial sweeteners, margarine, butter substitutes, processed foods, skim and low fat milk, vegetable oils such as canola, soy products - all the other processed junk that has (and is still) giving us a generation of chronic and degenerative disease.
Anyway the link is below. Please check it out and let me know what you
think. We carry Weston Price's book, 'Nutrition and Physical Degeneration'
in our catalog and I consider it one of the best books on nutrition ever
written".

http://westonaprice.org/traditional_diets/nasty_brutish_short.html

Tuesday, 5 June 2007

Global Warming: "three times faster than worst predictions"

from The Independent & The Independent on Sunday
5 June 2007

Global warming is accelerating three times more quickly than feared, a series of startling, authoritative studies has revealed.

They have found that emissions of carbon dioxide have been rising at thrice the rate in the 1990s. The Arctic ice cap is melting three times as fast - and the seas are rising twice as rapidly - as had been predicted.

News of the studies - which are bound to lead to calls for even tougher anti-pollution measures than have yet been contemplated - comes as the leaders of the world's most powerful nations prepare for the most crucial meeting yet on tackling climate change.

The study, published by the US National Academy of Sciences, shows that carbon dioxide emissions have been increasing by about 3 per cent a year during this decade, compared with 1.1 per cent a year in the 1990s.

The significance is that this is much faster than even the highest scenario outlined in this year's massive reports by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - and suggests that their dire forecasts of devastating harvests, dwindling water supplies, melting ice and loss of species are likely to be understating the threat facing the world.

The study found that nearly three-quarters of the growth in emissions came from developing countries, with a particularly rapid rise in China. The country, however, will resist being blamed for the problem, pointing out that its people on average still contribute only about a sixth of the carbon dioxide emitted by each American. And, the study shows, developed countries, with less than a sixth of the world's people, still contribute more than two-thirds of total emissions of the greenhouse gas.

On the ground, a study by the University of California's National Snow and Ice Data Center shows that Arctic ice has declined by 7.8 per cent a decade over the past 50 years, compared with an average estimate by IPCC computer models of 2.5 per cent.

Further reading: Go to pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0700609104